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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cricketers
John W Orchard, Rajesh Puranik, Christopher Semsarian, Jessica J Orchard, David Samra, Johan Duflou, Patrick Groenestein, Mark Young, Peter Brukner, Alex Kountouris
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:50 ] [Number:2] [Pages:72] [Pages No:49-58] [No of Hits : 1501]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1193 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aims: Sudden death in cricketers is rare, with the most common causes being cardiac, neurological (head/neck trauma, mainly from ball impact) and environmental (e.g., lightning strike and heat stroke, the former which usually involves cardiac arrest). The aim of this study was to review possible prevention of sudden cardiac death and make recommendations.

Materials and methods: A literature review of possible causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among cricketers was performed, along with evaluation of evidence for existing preventative measures. The method for evaluation was expert panel (cardiology and sports medicine) consensus recommendations based on the published evidence base.

Results: Potential cardiac causes of sudden death while playing cricket can be divided into the following categories: (1) atraumatic-origin preexisting arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and valve disorders (2) traumatic-origin arrhythmia (commotio cordis) (3) acquired coronary or valvular disease (4) viral myocarditis (5) Lightning strike. Preventive measures can be divided into pre-season (e.g., cardiovascular screening), prematch (e.g., assessment of viral illness), protective equipment (e.g., chest guards) and post-event (presence of first aid response including defibrillators). Our panel agreed that there was strong evidence that (1) trained and planned emergency response particularly with a defibrillator is effective at preventing SCD and (2) ceasing play in the presence of lightning strikes prevents lightning-related death (3) players with symptoms, risk factors or history suggestive of possible cardiac disease should undertake specific individual workup. There are other potential methods to prevent SCD, with expert level recommendations made in the absence of strong evidence.

Discussion and conclusion: The most controversial aspect of prevention of SCD is electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of asymptomatic players and this paper outlines the arguments both in favor and against without fully resolving the debate. The possible increase in early diagnosis of potentially life-threatening cases needs to be balanced against the risk of false positive results which may lead to discussion of exclusion from cricket. Cardiac workup is clearly of net benefit to symptomatic individuals (e.g. history of syncope, chest pain) or any player at higher than usual baseline risk (e.g., positive family history). Basic life support including access to defibrillators should be available with trained personnel wherever they can be afforded, which has strong evidence in favor of improving survival at the time of cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, Coronary artery disease, Cricket, Defibrillator, Electrocardiograph, Genetics, Prevention, Screening, Sudden cardiac death.

How to cite this article: Orchard JW, Puranik R, Semsarian C, Orchard JJ, Samra D, Duflou J, Groenestein P, Young M, Brukner P, Kountouris A. Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cricketers. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(2):49-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  Original Article
Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study
Amarjeet Singh, Smita Sinha
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:50 ] [Number:1] [Pages:47] [Pages No:22-27] [No of Hits : 534]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1186 | FREE

ABSTRACT

An increasing incidence of congenital malformations (CMF) has been reported in India.

Objective: To ascertain the determinants of CMF.

Methodology: This hospital based age-sex matched pair case control study was done at advanced pediatric center (APC), obstetrics and gynecology department (ANC clinic, maternity ward, labor room, etc.) and special clinics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India in 2008. The mothers were interviewed to collect information about risk factors.

Results: Two hundred three CMF (under five children and gestational CMF) cases and same number of controls were studied. Significant association of CMF was observed with the use of sex selection drugs by mothers (OR = 4.35), habits of fathers like taking alcohol (OR = 3), smoking (OR = 4.5) and using tobacco (OR = 2.7). Mother’s age at marriage < 18 years and history of abortion were also important predictors of CMF.

Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for CMF were avoidable viz. addiction, early marriage and use of sex selection drugs. People need to be educated about this.

Keywords: Antenatal care, Child health, Congenital malformations, Reproductive health, Sex selection.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Sinha S. Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(1):22-27.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  Original Article
Knowledge and Attitude of Medical and Dental Postgraduate Students toward Practice of Biostatistics
Medha Wadhwa, Pulkit Kalyan, Thanveer Kalantharakath
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:1-4] [No of Hits : 2141]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1134 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has appropriately focused attention on critical appraisal of clinical research. A result of this movement is that medical specialists must improve their grasp of epidemiological and statistical principles. This process necessitates a substantial level of expertise of the reader to appraise the design, methodology, data analysis, and interpretation of findings of relevant studies to arrive at conclusions. The foregoing requirements, together with the progressively increasing complexity of statistical methods, make information processing a complex task. This ‘gap’ between health science researchers and the understanding of mathematics and the statistical methods could justify the disinterest of a considerable part of clinical researchers and postgraduate students.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on all the enrolled medical and dental postgraduate students of 3 years belonging to the Sumandeep Vidyapeeth. The study subjects were distributed questionnaire that consisted of 2 parts which had questions related to the attitude and knowledge regarding the practice of biostatistics among the study subjects.

Results: The level of knowledge among the postgraduates was moderate and the attitude was found to be highly positive. Significant results were obtained that showed that the knowledge and attitude toward practice of biostatistics are strongly associated with each other with correlation coefficient to be 0.82.

Conclusion: The knowledge and attitude of medical and dental postgraduate students was found to be highly correlated indicating that with higher level of attitude increased knowledge can be acquired for practice of biostatistics among them. Biostatistics is perceived as an important element of EBM and incorporating it into EBM practice and curriculum would pave new ways into research field.

Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Biostatistics, Practice, Postgraduate students.

How to cite this article: Wadhwa M, Kalyan P, Kalantharakath T. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical and Dental Postgraduate Students toward Practice of Biostatistics. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
4.  Original Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Organ Donation among the Nursing Students
Sukhpal Kaur, Sandhya Ghai, Nadiya Krishnan, Deepika Rana, Dimple Kathania, Gagandeep Kaur, Godawari Thakur, Gurinder Kaur
[Year:2015] [Month:July-September] [Volume:49 ] [Number:3] [Pages:53] [Pages No:105-110] [No of Hits : 1478]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1157 | FREE

ABSTRACT

A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding organ donation among the nursing students. The study was conducted at National Institute of Nursing Education, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Using stratified systematic random sampling technique, 200 nursing student undergoing graduation and postgraduation courses were enrolled in the study. The tool used for data collection was a self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of three parts, i.e. information profile, assessment of knowledge, and assessment of attitude and perception regarding organ donation. For the assessment of knowledge, 17 multiple choice questions with one correct answer was used. The maximum attainable score was 18. One question had two right answers and was given a score of two. A five point Likert scale consisting of 15 questions was used for assessment of both attitude and perception of subjects regarding organ donation. Maximum attainable score was 65. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of study revealed that 74.5% of the subjects had average knowledge, 22% had poor knowledge and only 3.5% had good level of knowledge regarding organ donation. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 10.56 ± 2.01 with the range of 5 to 17. Regarding attitude and perception toward organ donation, 55.5% had neutral attitude and perception, 43.5% had positive attitude and perception and only 1% had negative attitude and perception.
It was concluded that majority of students had average knowledge about organ donation with neutral or positive attitude and perception. There is need to organize separate educational programs on organ donation for the nursing students other than their classroom teaching.

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Nursing students, Organ donation, Perception.

How to cite this article: Kaur S, Ghai S, Krishnan N, Rana D, Kathania D, Kaur G, Thakur G, Kaur G. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Organ Donation among the Nursing Students. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(3):105-110.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  Original Article
Direct Immunofluorescence of Renal Biopsy: Perspective of an Immunopathologist
Ranjana Walker Minz, Seema Chhabra, Kusum Joshi, N Khirwadkar, Vinay Sakhuja, Neelam Pasricha, Ranjit Bhardwaj
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:10-17] [No of Hits : 1314]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1136 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study was undertaken to analyze the strength of direct immunofluorescence microscopy in the diagnoses of renal diseases vis-à-vis histopathology. An attempt was also made to present advantages and pitfalls of this age old technique.

Settings and design: A total of 250 consecutive renal biopsies received over a period of 1 year were analyzed. The histopatholgy and direct immunofluorescence slides were reported by two separate pathologists and later compared to reach a final diagnosis.

Results: Two cores examined by histopatholgy and direct immunofluorescence microscopy yielded a final diagnosis in 98% cases. In 2% of renal biopsies (4 biopsies with a ‘descriptive’ label and 1 case of amyloid like nephropathy), additional diagnostic aids like electron microscopy were required to clinch a conclusive diagnosis. No case of anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis or hereditary glomerular disease was observed over 1 year period under review.

Conclusion: Direct immunofluorescence helped to detect IgA nephropathy (5% cases), it incresed the sensitivity of detection of focal segmental glomeulosclerosis (23 more cases) and membranous glomerulopathy (2 more cases). It helped in detection as well as grading of glomerulonephritis in lupus nephritis. Crescentic glomerulonephritis could be further categorized into immune complex and pauci-immune subtypes. Immunofluorescent dye thioflavin T proved out to be a very sensitive dye for detection of amyloidosis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis/ diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis cases were less well discriminated by direct immunofluorescence than histopathology. Two percent of renal biopsies (2 cases of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 1 case of membranous glomerulopathy, 1 case of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis) were false negative on direct immunofluorescence implying technical errors. Thus, correct diagnosis of glomerulonephritis requires direct immunofluorescence microscopy in parallel with light microscopic examination and also correlation with clinical features, serological as well as biochemical parameters. In less than 2% of patients, electron microscopy might be essential.

Keywords: Biopsy, DIF, Kidney.

How to cite this article: Minz RW, Chhabra S, Joshi K, Khirwadkar N, Sakhuja V, Pasricha N, Bhardwaj R. Direct Immunofluorescence of Renal Biopsy: Perspective of an Immunopathologist. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):10-17.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
6.  Original Article
Prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis and its Correlation in Women of Rural and Urban Parts of Hoshiarpur (Punjab)
Rajvir Kaur, Vijay Lakshami Sharma, Amarjeet Singh
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:32-36] [No of Hits : 1217]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1139 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of enormous disability in both the developed and developing world. The worldwide prevalence estimate for symptomatic OA is 9.6% among men and 18% among women. The present study was undertaken with the objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) in women of rural and urban Hoshiarpur and to elucidate the correlates of KOA in women of rural and urban Hoshiarpur. The study was conducted in the rural and urban areas of district Hoshiarpur, Punjab (India) between August 2012-May 2013. The sample comprised of urban (200) and rural (200) females. A semi structured interview schedule was used to interview the study subjects. The prevalence was found to be high in urban area (21.5%). The prevalence of KOA was found to be increased with age and was also significantly associated with educational level and menopause.

Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, Prevalence, Women.

How to cite this article: Kaur R, Sharma VL, Singh A. Prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis and its Correlation in Women of Rural and Urban Parts of Hoshiarpur (Punjab). J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):32-36.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
7.  Review Article
Journal Club: A Club for Medical Education!
Nidhi Bhatnagar, Ravneet Kaur, Binod Kumar Patro
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:43-45] [No of Hits : 1042]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1141 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Journal club (JC) is an effective and valuable tool in medical education. Critical reasoning and evidence based medicine practice are core competencies required by medical professionals. In times of today journal club offers several advan- tages, e.g. update with current literature, promote evidencebased medicine, demonstrate continuing medical education, learn critical appraisal skills and promote social interaction and debate. However, this tool remains largely underutilized. Practice of inappropriate methodology results in failure to achieve the intended outcomes. This report attempts to track the history of journal club, its types, current innovations made and role in medical education. It explores the potential utilization of this tool in times to come.

Keywords: Journal club, Medical education, Postgraduate, Critical appraisal.

How to cite this article: Bhatnagar N, Kaur R, Patro BK. Journal Club: A Club for Medical Education! J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):43-45.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
8.  Original Article
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its Risk Factors among Urban Sikh Population of Amritsar
Amrinder Singh, Shweta Shenoy, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:18-25] [No of Hits : 1013]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1137 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to a cluster of various interrelated cardiometabolic risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). South Asians also seem to have a peculiar body phenotype known as South Asian Phenotype, characterized by increased waist circumference, increased waist hip ratio, excessive body fat mass, increased plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance, as well as an atherogenic dyslipidemia, with low levels of HDL cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. Epidemiologists in India and international agencies such as the world health organization (WHO) have been sounding an alarm on the rapidly rising burden of CVD for the past 15 years. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of ms in the Urban Sikh Population of Amritsar by means of a door-to-door survey. A secondary aim was to identify the risk factors for the development of ms. The sample size of 1089 subjects was calculated. This study focused on Urban Sikhs living in Amritsar, Punjab. The overall prevalence of ms in Urban Sikh population of Amritsar was 34.3% with a higher prevalence among women (41.4%) compared with men (28.2%). We also found that the prevalence of ms increases with age in both sexes. We infer that out of 1089 subjects there were only 84 subjects who reported with not a single abnormal component of the ms. The rest 1005 subjects had either one or more component abnormal in them.

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Prevalence, Cardiovascular disorders, Urban population.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Shenoy S, Sandhu JS. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its Risk Factors among Urban Sikh Population of Amritsar. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):18-25.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
9.  Original Article
Percutaneous C-arm-guided Wide Bore Needle Biopsy for Intraosseous Spinal Lesions
Saumyajit Basu, Agnivesh Tikoo, Farid H Malik, Jay Deep Ghosh, Mantu Jain, Trinanjan Sarangi
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:5-9] [No of Hits : 918]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1135 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Study design: Retrospective analysis of data of those patients who underwent a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy at our hospital was done. All patients had a bony lesion in a vertebra (thoracic, lumbar, sacrum) without a soft tissue component around the bone and neurodeficit.

Objective: To analyze the role of percutaneous wide bore needle biopsy in vertebral lesions without any soft tissue component.

Summary of background data: Adequate treatment of spinal lesions requires formulation of diagnosis-best achieved by a tissue biopsy when all attempts at diagnosis fail by noninvasive methods. Percutaneous CT guided fine needle biopsy is technically difficult in intraosseous lesions leading to frequent inconclusive results and hence the necessity of wide bore needle biopsy.

Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of data of 26 patients with mean age of 58.8 years who underwent a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy at our hospital was done. All patients had a bony lesion in a vertebra (thoracic, lumbar, saccrum) without a soft tissue component around the bone and neurodeficit. The procedure was done under local anesthesia with sedation.

Results: Positive diagnosis was achieved in 23 out of 26, i.e. 88.4% of cases (adequacy). Out of 26, there were 13 cases of malignancy (50%), 8 cases of tuberculosis (30.7%), 2 cases of osteoporosis (7.6%) and biopsy was inconclusive in 3 (11.5%) cases. Of the 13 malignancies, 7 cases were of metastasis (53.8%), 5 cases of plasmocytoma (38.4%) and 1 case of lymphoma (7.6%).

Conclusion: Percutaneous biopsy under fluoroscopic guidance by transpedicular approach is quite safe and gives high adequacy (88.4%) without significant complications that are associated with open and paraspinal techniques.

Keywords: Spinal biopsy, Percutaneous biopsy, Vertebral metastasis, Wide bore biopsy.

How to cite this article: Basu S, Tikoo A, Malik FH, Ghosh JD, Jain M, Sarangi T. Percutaneous C-arm-guided Wide Bore Needle Biopsy for Intraosseous Spinal Lesions. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):5-9.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
10.  Case Report
Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Internal Carotid Artery presenting as Intractable Epistaxis in a Case of Maxillary Fracture
Dinesh Kumar, Gyana Ranjan Sahu, Ajay Kumar, KK Mukherjee, Vidya Rattan
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:49 ] [Number:1] [Pages:58] [Pages No:49-51] [No of Hits : 880]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1143 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery is a rare complication of injury after craniomaxillofacial trauma. Delayed recurrent epistaxis after head and facial trauma is the most distinctive manifestation of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm. Epistaxis due to pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery is difficult to control, and may lead to hemor- rhagic shock or asphyxia and thus seriously threatens life. The purpose of this paper is to present a rare case of recurrent epistaxis secondary to ICA pseudoaneurysm following blunt maxillofacial trauma. Endovascular stenting was performed and the recurrent epistaxis was successfully arrested.

Keywords: Epistaxis, Pseudoaneurysm, Internal carotid artery, Endovascular stent.

How to cite this article: Kumar D, Sahu GR, Kumar A, Mukherjee KK, Rattan V. Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Internal Carotid Artery presenting as Intractable Epistaxis in a Case of Maxillary Fracture. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2015;49(1):49-51.

Source of support: Nil

conflict of interest:None

 
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