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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  Review Article
Conventional and Advanced Diagnostic Tools in Oral Cancer with Emphasis on Role of Dentist and Early Detection
Smit Singla, Akhilesh Verma, Snehil Goyal, Itika Singla, Anjali Shetty
[Year:2017] [Month:July-September] [Volume:51 ] [Number:3] [Pages:40] [Pages No:128-133] [No of Hits : 825]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1247 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide day by day. Those who suffer from oral cancer have low survival rate compared with other cancer, mainly due to delay in the diagnosis, metastases, and presence of secondary tumors. For the dental profession, it is really challenging to diagnose oral precancer or oral cancer, particularly in its early stage of the disease. Early screening and advanced diagnostic tools play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment planning of patients suffering from oral cancer. The diagnosis method usually includes histopathology and visualization adjuncts, such as toluidine blue, vizilite, etc. This study reviews the development of new upcoming tools for early detection, emphasis on the importance of role of dentist, and early detection of oral cancer.

Keywords: Early detection, Oral cancer, Screening.

How to cite this article: Singla S, Verma A, Goyal S, Singla I, Shetty A. Conventional and Advanced Diagnostic Tools in Oral Cancer with Emphasis on Role of Dentist and Early Detection. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2017;51(3):128-133.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cricketers
John W Orchard, Rajesh Puranik, Christopher Semsarian, Jessica J Orchard, David Samra, Johan Duflou, Patrick Groenestein, Mark Young, Peter Brukner, Alex Kountouris
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:50 ] [Number:2] [Pages:72] [Pages No:49-58] [No of Hits : 1647]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1193 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aims: Sudden death in cricketers is rare, with the most common causes being cardiac, neurological (head/neck trauma, mainly from ball impact) and environmental (e.g., lightning strike and heat stroke, the former which usually involves cardiac arrest). The aim of this study was to review possible prevention of sudden cardiac death and make recommendations.

Materials and methods: A literature review of possible causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among cricketers was performed, along with evaluation of evidence for existing preventative measures. The method for evaluation was expert panel (cardiology and sports medicine) consensus recommendations based on the published evidence base.

Results: Potential cardiac causes of sudden death while playing cricket can be divided into the following categories: (1) atraumatic-origin preexisting arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and valve disorders (2) traumatic-origin arrhythmia (commotio cordis) (3) acquired coronary or valvular disease (4) viral myocarditis (5) Lightning strike. Preventive measures can be divided into pre-season (e.g., cardiovascular screening), prematch (e.g., assessment of viral illness), protective equipment (e.g., chest guards) and post-event (presence of first aid response including defibrillators). Our panel agreed that there was strong evidence that (1) trained and planned emergency response particularly with a defibrillator is effective at preventing SCD and (2) ceasing play in the presence of lightning strikes prevents lightning-related death (3) players with symptoms, risk factors or history suggestive of possible cardiac disease should undertake specific individual workup. There are other potential methods to prevent SCD, with expert level recommendations made in the absence of strong evidence.

Discussion and conclusion: The most controversial aspect of prevention of SCD is electrocardiogram (ECG) screening of asymptomatic players and this paper outlines the arguments both in favor and against without fully resolving the debate. The possible increase in early diagnosis of potentially life-threatening cases needs to be balanced against the risk of false positive results which may lead to discussion of exclusion from cricket. Cardiac workup is clearly of net benefit to symptomatic individuals (e.g. history of syncope, chest pain) or any player at higher than usual baseline risk (e.g., positive family history). Basic life support including access to defibrillators should be available with trained personnel wherever they can be afforded, which has strong evidence in favor of improving survival at the time of cardiac arrest.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, Coronary artery disease, Cricket, Defibrillator, Electrocardiograph, Genetics, Prevention, Screening, Sudden cardiac death.

How to cite this article: Orchard JW, Puranik R, Semsarian C, Orchard JJ, Samra D, Duflou J, Groenestein P, Young M, Brukner P, Kountouris A. Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cricketers. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(2):49-58.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  Review Article
Appendicular Histology and Its Clinical Significance in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Study from North India
Nadeem Parvez, Surinder S Rana, Ritambhra Nada, Vishal Sharma, Ravi Sharma, Puneet Chhabra, Deepak Gunjan, Lovneet Dhalaria, Rajesh Gupta, Deepak K Bhasin
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:50 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:141-147] [No of Hits : 694]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1207 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: The appendix may be involved in ulcerative colitis (UC) to variable extent. Clinical significance of appendicular involvement is not clear and it has long been considered an innocent bystander. This study prospectively investigated appendiceal histology and its clinical significance in patients with UC.

Materials and methods: Colonoscopy was performed in 60 patients and biopsies were taken from appendiceal orifice, cecum, and colon. Appendiceal histology was classified as active if there was presence of neutrophils with crypt distortion. Inactive inflammation was defined as positive for crypt distortion and negative for neutrophils. Otherwise the histology was reported as normal or nonspecific changes. The patients were followed for a minimum period of 6 months.

Results: In patients evaluated endoscopically, 63% patients had histological involvement of the appendiceal orifice. Pancolitis was seen more commonly in patients with appendicular orifice inflammation than in patients with normal appendicular histology (44.7 vs 9%, p = 0.001). Most patients with appendiceal orifice inflammation had involvement of the cecum. Skip lesion of the appendix without cecum involvement was seen in 37% of the patients. The patients with appendiceal orifice inflammation had a significantly higher grade of endoscopic colitis compared to patients with normal histology (p = 0.006). Relapse rate was higher in patients with appendiceal orifice inflammation than in patients with normal appendiceal histology (18.4 vs 9%), although the difference was insignificant (p = 0.329).

Conclusion: Appendicular involvement in ulcerative colitis is not uncommon. Its involvement may predict the course, extent, and severity of colitis.

Keywords: Appendix, Colonoscopy, Inflammation, Ulcerative colitis.

How to cite this article: Parvez N, Rana SS, Nada R, Sharma V, Sharma R, Chhabra P, Gunjan D, Dhalaria L, Gupta R, Bhasin DK. Appendicular Histology and Its Clinical Significance in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Study from North India. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(3):141-147.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Bisphosphonates in Orthopedics: Evidence-based Review of Indications and Adverse Effects
Sameer Aggarwal, Nitesh Gahlot, Uttam Chand Saini, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:50 ] [Number:2] [Pages:72] [Pages No:75-85] [No of Hits : 671]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1197 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are clinically the most important class of antiresorptive agents available to treat diseases characterized by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. These agents have a potent effect on the skeleton and are in common use for treatment of osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and metastatic bone disease in adults as well as in the treatment of pediatric disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta, Perthes’ disease, and fibrous dysplasia. Although initial investigations had demonstrated an acceptable safety profile of bisphosphonate drugs, but recently this has been questioned by some authors. In this article, we review the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these agents in brief and the orthopedic applications as well as adverse effects in detail.

Keywords: Adverse effects, Bisphosphonates, Indications, Review.

How to cite this article: Aggarwal S, Gahlot N, Saini UC, Dhillon MS. Bisphosphonates in Orthopedics: Evidence-based Review of Indications and Adverse Effects. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(2):75-85.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  Original Article
Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study
Amarjeet Singh, Smita Sinha
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:50 ] [Number:1] [Pages:47] [Pages No:22-27] [No of Hits : 631]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1186 | FREE

ABSTRACT

An increasing incidence of congenital malformations (CMF) has been reported in India.

Objective: To ascertain the determinants of CMF.

Methodology: This hospital based age-sex matched pair case control study was done at advanced pediatric center (APC), obstetrics and gynecology department (ANC clinic, maternity ward, labor room, etc.) and special clinics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India in 2008. The mothers were interviewed to collect information about risk factors.

Results: Two hundred three CMF (under five children and gestational CMF) cases and same number of controls were studied. Significant association of CMF was observed with the use of sex selection drugs by mothers (OR = 4.35), habits of fathers like taking alcohol (OR = 3), smoking (OR = 4.5) and using tobacco (OR = 2.7). Mother’s age at marriage < 18 years and history of abortion were also important predictors of CMF.

Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for CMF were avoidable viz. addiction, early marriage and use of sex selection drugs. People need to be educated about this.

Keywords: Antenatal care, Child health, Congenital malformations, Reproductive health, Sex selection.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Sinha S. Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(1):22-27.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  Original Research
Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers of Vascular Thrombosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
M Bhanukumar, Prasanna KH Ramaswamy, Naveen K Peddi, Vineetha B Menon
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:50 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:127-131] [No of Hits : 627]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1204 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aims: The objective of the study was to determine the mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) compared to subjects without type 2 DM and their correlation with fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and duration of type 2 DM respectively.

Materials and methods: A prospective analytical case-control study was conducted involving 50 subjects with type 2 DM and 50 subjects without type 2 DM. The mean and standard deviation were estimated for both the groups separately and independent Student’s “t”-test was used for evaluating the significant difference. The statistical evaluation was carried out at 95% confidence level.

Results: Mean MPV and PDW in case group was significantly higher compared to control group (p < 0.005). Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and duration of type 2 DM did not significantly alter MPV or PDW.

Conclusion: The study concludes that MPV and PDW are significantly increased in patients with type 2 DM compared to patients without type 2 DM. Platelet volume indices are an important, simple, and cost-effective tool that should be used and explored extensively, especially in countries, such as India, for predicting the possibility of impending acute vascular events in patients with type 2 DM.

Clinical significance: This analytical method helps us to use MPV and PDW as early markers of vascular thrombosis.

Keywords: Case-control study, Mean platelet volume, Platelet distribution width, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Vascular thrombosis.

How to cite this article: Bhanukumar M, Ramaswamy PKH, Peddi NK, Menon VB. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers of Vascular Thrombosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(3):127-131.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  Research Article
Effectiveness of Isokinetic Exercises in Preoperative Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Rehabilitation
Amita Aggarwal, Bibek Adhya, Mandeep S Dhillon
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:50 ] [Number:1] [Pages:47] [Pages No:5-8] [No of Hits : 584]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1183 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The present study compared the effectiveness of adding isokinetic exercise program to conventional rehabilitation protocol in preoperated patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 10 each). Group A followed conventional rehabilitation protocol. In group B, isokinetic exercise for quadriceps and hamstring were advised. These consisted of 3 set of 10 repetitions at velocity of 60 and 120° sec. with 1 minute rest interval between the sets. The exercise protocol was performed 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Student t-test was used for analysis. Also subjects were evaluated for pain using visual analog scale (VAS). For the assessment of symptoms and functions Cincinnati knee rating system and Lysholm scoring scale were used. The effectiveness of isokinetic exercise was significantly better only with knee extension peak torque and peak work in case of quadriceps (p < 0.05). Hamstring testing showed no significant difference with isokinetic training in intragroup as well as intergroup comparison for any measured parameters. Also no significant differences were found with use of functional scales.

Conclusion: Isokinetic exercises are effective in improving quadriceps peak torque and peak work in patients with ACL tear.

Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament tear, Isokinetic exercise, Rehabilitation.

How to cite this article: Aggarwal A, Adhya B, Dhillon MS. Effectiveness of Isokinetic Exercises in Preoperative Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears Rehabilitation. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(1):5-8.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Vitamin D reduces Exacerbation in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Anil Chauhan, Manvi Singh, Nishant Jaiswal, Kiran Kumar Thumburu, Amit Agarwal, Shailender Singh Chauhan, Sunil Dhatwalia, Mananda S Bhende, Meenu Singh
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:50 ] [Number:2] [Pages:72] [Pages No:86-92] [No of Hits : 549]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1198 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: The question whether treatment with vitamin D improves asthma exacerbations in children and adults still needs to be addressed.

Background: Recent studies in children and adults found a higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D associated with a higher severity of asthma and impaired pulmonary function. In asthmatic children, patients with vitamin D deficiency demonstrated increased airway hyperresponsiveness and corticosteroid requirements

Results: Of 469 records/studies identified through database searching, 5 studies were included in this systematic review. The overall pooled effect showed a significant reduction in acute asthma exacerbation in the vitamin D group (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.93). There were no studies that focus on the quality of life.

Conclusion: This systematic review supports the role of vitamin D in reducing the number of asthma exacerbations in children but not in adults.

Clinical significance: The present systematic review demonstrates reduction in asthma exacerbations in children. Most of the asthma children are on inhaled corticosteroid, which poses a threat for its side effects. However, vitamin D having multiple functions in body could be used as an alternative therapy in asthmatic children. In adults, more trials are needed wherein the deficient individuals are supplemented with vitamin D and further assessed for asthma exacerbations. There is no harm in supplementation of vitamin D to deficient and insufficient asthmatic individuals.

Keywords: Asthma, Exacerbations, Heterogeneity, Placebo, Pulmonary function test, Systematic review, Vitamin D.

How to cite this article: Chauhan A, Singh M, Jaiswal N, Thumburu KK, Agarwal A, Chauhan SS, Dhatwalia S, Bhende MS, Singh M. Vitamin D reduces Exacerbation in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(2):86-92.

Source of support: The review was supported and funded by ICMR, New Delhi (grant number 5/7/592/11-RHN). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  Original Research
Biotechnological Inventions and Patent Law: National and International Perspective
Jyoti Rattan
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:50 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:132-135] [No of Hits : 546]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1205 | FREE

ABSTRACT

In the knowledge society of 21st century, intellectual property rights (IPRs) are real assets and much more valuable and important than are materialistic assets like house, motor car, and so on. Patents are given for inventions which fulfill few important conditions, such as novelty, inventiveness, industrial application, and written description. Significantly, biotechnological invention involves monopoly over life or living beings or living processes, and morally and ethically these are considered to involve tinkering with life or nature. However, today, biotechnological inventions are patentable because of their benefits and utility to the industry. This article is a humble attempt to examine international and national law and judicial decisions relating to patents and biotechnological inventions from a theoretical perspective.

Keywords: Intellectual property rights, Nonnatural living beings, Novelty, Patent, World intellectual property organization.

How to cite this article: Rattan J. Biotechnological Inventions and Patent Law: National and International Perspective. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(3):132-135.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Feasibility of Using Mobile Smartphone Camera as an Imaging Device for Screening of Cervical Cancer in a Low-resource Setting
Rashmi Bagga, Vanita Suri, Radhika Srinivasan, Niranjan Khandelwal, Payal Keswarpu, Sarif Kumar Naik, Vidya Chandrasekhar, Lovi Gupta, Soubhik Paul
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:50 ] [Number:2] [Pages:72] [Pages No:69-74] [No of Hits : 531]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1196 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of a screening method for cervical cancer using an application developed on smartphone to aid visual inspection with acetic acid.

Materials and methods: A prospective study was carried out in 230 women in the Department of Gynaecology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. These women were divided into two groups. Among the first group, screen positive women (n = 28) were examined by two gynecologists. In the second group (n = 202), healthcare workers screened women in a mobile van. The two groups were examined using the smartphone and digital colposcope. Abnormal findings were confirmed by liquid-based cytology and histopathology. The image quality of ColpPhon® was compared with colposcopic images as the gold standard. Kappa was used for comparison of ColpPhon® and colposcopic findings for final diagnosis.

Results: Among the 230 women screened, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was diagnosed in six cases by histopathology (CIN 2/3 in five and CIN 1 in one). These six women belonged to the group of 28 women examined in the colposcopy clinic. Both colposcope and ColpPhon® were able to identify these six women. The individual image quality parameters for ColpPhon® were slightly inferior to the colposcope. The overall image clarity had an agreement in 82% (184/225) as being either good or excellent. The diagnosis made on images acquired from each device had an agreement in 90% (208/230) of the cases.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates feasibility of incorporating a smartphone device to capture images of the cervix for improving cervical cancer screening in resource-poor countries.

Keywords: Cervical cancer, Early detection, Low-resource setting, Mobile device, Smartphone.

How to cite this article: Bagga R, Suri V, Srinivasan R, Khandelwal N, Keswarpu P, Naik SK, Chandrasekhar V, Gupta L, Paul S. Feasibility of Using Mobile Smartphone Camera as an Imaging Device for Screening of Cervical Cancer in a Lowresource Setting. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(2):69-74.

Source of support: The study was supported by Philips India Ltd.

Conflict of interest: None

 
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