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VOLUME 50 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2016 ) > List of Articles


Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study

Smita Sinha

Citation Information : Sinha S. Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016; 50 (1):22-27.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1186

Published Online: 01-12-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).



To ascertain the determinants of CMF.


This hospital based age-sex matched pair case control study was done at advanced pediatric center (APC), obstetrics and gynecology department (ANC clinic, maternity ward, labor room, etc.) and special clinics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India in 2008. The mothers were interviewed to collect information about risk factors.


Two hundred three CMF (under five children and gestational CMF) cases and same number of controls were studied. Significant association of CMF was observed with the use of sex selection drugs by mothers (OR = 4.35), habits of fathers like taking alcohol (OR = 3), smoking (OR = 4.5) and using tobacco (OR = 2.7). Mother's age at marriage < 18 years and history of abortion were also important predictors of CMF.


Most of the risk factors for CMF were avoidable viz. addiction, early marriage and use of sex selection drugs. People need to be educated about this.

How to cite this article

Singh A, Sinha S. Risk Factors of Congenital Malformations in North India: A Case Control Study. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2016;50(1):22-27.

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