Malaria is one of the prevalent vector-borne diseases in India. Though it is a curable disease, failure to recognize it early and increasing resistance to present antimalarial drugs are the major obstacles in its treatment. Thus, irrespective of substantial advancement, there is a demand of supplemental diagnostic methods with high sensitivity and specificity to account for early diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, advanced antimalarial drugs and profound research in pathophysiological mechanism of antimalarial drug resistance is also indispensable. In this review, we have summed up the presentations on malaria that were presented during the 40th Annual Conference of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists, MICROCON 2016 at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, from November 23 to 27, 2016. Videos of the talks held in the conference are also available on website http://microcon2016.com/conference-videos/. Major talks were focused on the development of newer diagnostic techniques with high sensitivity and specificity. Further, research on the markers for drug resistance and prevention of spread of drug resistance in malaria was also discussed closely.
WHO. World malaria report 2015. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
Ezennia IJ, Nduka, SO.; Ekwunife OI. Cost benefit analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic test: the perspective of Nigerian community pharmacists. Malar J 2017 Jan;16:7.
Aydin-Schmidt B, Morris U, Ding XC, Jovel I, Msellem MI, Bergman D, Islam A, Ali AS, Polley S, Gonzalez IJ, et al. Field evaluation of a high throughput loop mediated isothermal amplification test for the detection of asymptomatic plasmodium infections in Zanzibar. PLoS One 2017 Jan;12(1):e0169037.
Piera KA, Aziz A, William T, Bell D, Gonzalez IJ, Barber BE, Anstey NM, Grigg MJ. Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in a co-endemic area in Malaysia. Malar J 2017 Jan;16:29.
Gaye O, Diouf M, Diallo S. A comparison of thick smears, QBC malaria, PCR and PATH Falciparum malaria test trip in Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis. Parasite 1999 Sep;6(3): 273-275.
Fançony C, Sebastião YV, Pires JE, Gamboa D, Nery SV. Performance of microscopy and RDTs in the context of a malaria prevalence survey in Angola: a comparison using PCR as the gold standard. Malar J 2013 Aug;12(1):284.
Mahende C, Ngasala B, Lusingu J, Yong TS, Lushino P, Lemnge M, Mmbando B, Premji Z. Performance of rapid diagnostic test, blood-film microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of malaria infection among febrile children from Korogwe District, Tanzania. Malar J 2016 Jul;15(1):391.
Ojurongbe O, Adegbosin OO, Taiwo SS, Alli OA, Olowe OA, Ojurongbe TA, Bolaji OS, Adeyeba OA. Assessment of clinical diagnosis, microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, and polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Malar Res Treat 2013 Nov;2013:308069.
Bruce-Chwatt, LJ.; Black, RH.; Canfield, CJ.; Clyde, DF.; Peters, W.; Wernsdorfer, WH. Chemotherapy of malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1986.
Farooq U, Mahajan RC. Drug resistance in malaria. J Vector Borne Dis 2004 Sep-Dec;41(3-4):45-53.
Ranjit M, Sahu U, Khatua CR, Mohapatra BN, Acharya AS, Kar SK. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum parasites and severe malaria in Orissa. Curr Sci 2009 Jun;96(12):1608-1611.
Bloland, PB. Drug resistance in malaria, Malaria Epidemiology Branch Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chamblee, GA, United States of America. Geneva: WHO; 2001.
National Institute of Malaria Research (NIMR). Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of malaria in India. 2nd ed. New Delhi: NIMR; 2011.
Mita T, Tachibana S, Hashimoto M, Hirai M. Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13: a potential molecular marker for tackling artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2015 Nov;14(1):125-135.
Witkowski B, Duru V, Khim N, Ross LS, Saintpierre B, Beghain J, Chy S, Kim S, Ke S, Kloeung N, et al. A surrogate marker of piperaquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a phenotype-genotype association study. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Feb;17(2):174-183.
Amato R, Lim P, Miotto O, Amaratunga C, Dek D, Pearson RD, Almagro-Garcia J, Neal AT, Sreng S, Suon S, et al. Genetic markers associated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: a genotype-phenotype association study. Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Feb;17(2):164-173.
Amir A, Russell B, Liew JW, Moon RW, Fong MY, Vythilingam I, Subramaniam V, Snounou G, Lau YL. Invasion characteristics of a Plasmodium knowlesi line newly isolated from a human. Sci Rep 2016 Apr;6:24623.
Chin W, Contacos PG, Coatney GR, Kimball HR. A naturally acquired quotidian-type malaria in man transferable to monkeys. Science 1965 Aug;149(3686):865.
Vythilingam I, Noorazian YM, Huat TC, Jiram AI, Yusri YM, Azahari AH, Norparina I, Noorrain A, Lokmanhakim S. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia. Parasit Vectors 2008 Aug;1(1):26.
Daneshvar C, Davis TM, Cox-Singh J, Rafa'ee MZ, Zakaria SK, Divis PC, Singh B. Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Clin Infect Dis 2009 Sep;49(6): 852-860.
Naing C, Whittaker MA, Nyunt Wai V, Mak JW. Is Plasmodium vivax malaria a severe malaria?: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Aug;8(8):e3071.
Chaudhary, KK.; Kannojia, P.; Mishra, N. Chalcones as antimalarials: in silico and synthetic approach. In: Méndez-Vilas A, editor. The battle against microbial pathogens: basic science, technological advances and educational programs. Badajoz: Formatex Research Center; 2015. Available from: http://www. microbiology5.org/microbiology5/book/512-525.pdf.
Yadav N, Dixit SK, Bhattacharya A, Mishra LC, Sharma M, Awasthi SK, Bhasin VK. Antimalarial activity of newly synthesized chalcone derivatives in vitro. Chem Biol Drug Des 2012 Aug;80(2):340-397.
Bhattacharya A, Mishra LC, Sharma M, Awasthi SK, Bhasin VK. Antimalarial pharmacodynamics of chalcones derivatives in combination with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Eur J Med Chem 2009 Sep;44(9): 3388-3393.
Go ML, Liu M, Wilairat P, Rosenthal PJ, Saliba KJ, Kirk K. Antiplasmodial chalcones inhibit sorbitol-induced hemolysis of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009 Sep;48(9):3241-3245.
Pradhan P. Co-infection of typhoid and malaria. J Med Lab Diagn 2011 Jul;2(3):22-26.
Bashyam H. Surviving malaria, dying of typhoid. J Exp Med 2007 Nov;204(12):2774.
Ratledge C, Dover LG. Iron metabolism in pathogenic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 2000 Oct;54(1):881-941.
Magnus S, Hambleton I, Moosdeen F, Serjeant G. Recurrent infections in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Dis Child 1999 Jun;80(6):537-541.
Wanachiwanawin W. Infections in E-beta thalassemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):581-587.
Patruta SI, Horl WL. Iron and infection. Kidney Int 1999 Mar;55(Suppl 69):S125-S130.
Ballart IJ, Estevez ME, Sen L, Diez RA, Giuntoli J, de Miani SA, Penalver J. Progressive dysfunction of monocytes associated with iron overload and age in patients with thalassemia major. Blood 1986 Jan;67(1):105-109.
Singh G, Urhekar AD, Maheshwari UM, Sharma S, Raksha. Prevalence of malaria in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. J Bacteriol Parasitol 2015 Apr;6:221.
Madhavan KT, Jajoo UN, Bhalla A. Seasonal variations in incidence of severe and complicated malaria in Central India. Indian J Med Sci 2001 Jan;55(1):43-46.