Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research

Register      Login

VOLUME 55 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2021 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine for the Prevention of Cancer Cervix—Awareness and Acceptability: A Study in Urban Population of UT, Chandigarh (Hospital Based): A Prospective Observational Study

Aashima Arora, Neelam Aggarwal, Anju Singh

Citation Information : Arora A, Aggarwal N, Singh A. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine for the Prevention of Cancer Cervix—Awareness and Acceptability: A Study in Urban Population of UT, Chandigarh (Hospital Based): A Prospective Observational Study. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2021; 55 (2):70-73.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1371

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; The Author(s).


Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian females. India reports one-fourth of the total world's cervical cancer each year that results in 17% of all women's death from this disease globally. More than 80% of cervical cancer in India is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). The current study aimed to assess the level of awareness and acceptability of HPV vaccine among urban women attending outpatient department (OPD) of Gynecology, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Materials and methods: A total of 200 women attending the OPD of Gynecology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, for any gynecological complaint were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included sexually active adult females with willingness to participate in the survey. All participants were assessed for the etiology of cancer cervix and available screening modalities for cervical precancerous lesions using a preformed questionnaire. Special emphasis was laid on—whether the subjects were aware about its availability, cost, dosing schedule, and the efficacy of HPV vaccine. Result: Among all, 11% of subjects were aware that early coitus and early pregnancy are predisposing factor for cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus is sexually transmitted infection and the most common cause of cervical cancer was known to 13% of subjects; however, <3% were aware that HPV infection is transient and there is no treatment available for this. About 25% subjects were aware that Pap smear was the screening modality. Only 11% were aware that cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV vaccine. Conclusion: There is a lack of awareness for the etiology, predisposing factors, available screening method, and vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancers among sexually active Indian females. Further emphasis on the awareness of HPV infection and vaccine should be made among female population.

  1. Ferlay R, Soerjomataram R, Ervik R, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136(5):E359–E386. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29210. Available from: http://www. [Last accessed on 2015 Dec 03].
  2. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. The Challenge Ahead: Progress in Breast and Cervical Cancer. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation; 2011. Available from: breastand-cervical-cancer. [Last accessed on 2016 Jan 21].
  3. Nandakumar A, Ramnath T, Chaturvedi M. The magnitude of cancer cervix in India. Indian J Med Res 2009;130(3):219–221.
  4. Bharadwaj M, Hussain S, Nasare V, et al. HPV & HPV vaccination: issues in developing countries. Indian J Med Res 2009;130(3):327–333.
  5. Adegoke O, Kulasingam S, Virnig B. Cervical cancer trends in the United States: A 35-year population-based analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2012;21(10):1031–1037. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3385.
  6. Holman DM, Benard V, Roland KB, et al. Barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination among US adolescents: A systematic review of the literature. JAMA Pediatr 2014;168:76–82. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.2752.
  7. Waller J, Ostini R, Marlow LA, et al. Validation of a measure of knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) using item response theory and classical test theory. Prev Med 2013;56(1):35–40. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.10.028.
  8. Fowler B, Bodson J, Warner EL, et al. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings. J Community Health 2016;41:825–837. DOI: 10.1007/s10900-016-0160-3.
  9. Singhal T. Indian academy of pediatrics committee on immunisation (IAPCOI)—consensus recommendations on immunization. Indian Pediatr 2008;45:635–648.
  10. Divakar H. Knowledge and awareness about preventive health seeking behavior and acceptability of cervical cancer vaccine in urban women in comparison with school students. J South Asian Feder Obst Gynae 2012;4(1):47–53. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10006-1172.
  11. Shah V, Vyas S, Singh A, et al. Awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention among the nursing staff of a tertiary health institute in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Ecancermedicalscience 2012;6:270.
  12. Ali SF, Ayub S, Manzoor NF, et al. Knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst interns and nursing staff in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. PLoS One 2010;5(6):e11059. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011059.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.