The current article briefly reviews the factors that contributed toward risk and resilience experienced by children and families during the pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 with a focus on the child's behavior and emotional adjustment. The widespread closures of schools for an indefinite period led to a huge slide in academic learning of children at the local and global level, especially from low-income families. Increased time spent indoors, lack of peer interaction and learning remotely on electronic devices led to an exponential increase in time spent using technology and screens, decrease in physical activity, unhealthy eating habits and routines, and poor-quality sleep among children and adolescents during the pandemic. Increase in loneliness was documented in several studies and since loneliness is inextricably linked to mental health outcomes such as increased depression and anxiety these negative emotions are a matter of concern for child health professionals. Several governmental policies and remedial actions were initiated in the education, economic, and social sectors to support the developmental needs of children and pave the way forward. On the positive side, the stay-at-home mandate provided some families a unique opportunity to positively connect, engage in shared family activities, discover new strengths, and develop their interests. The real influence of the pandemic may well extend beyond the infection and profoundly impact children's overall development and quality of life. Effective preventive supports and prioritized targeted measures are therefore needed to ensure the subjective well-being of children during and after the pandemic.
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020;395(10227):912–920. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
Spinelli M, Lionetti F, Pastore M, et al. Parents’ stress and children's psychological problems in families facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Front Psychol 2020;11:1713. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01713
Malhi P, Bharti B, Sidhu M. Stress and parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic: psychosocial impact on children. Indian J Pediatr 2021;88(5):481. DOI: 10.1007/s12098-021-03665-0
Sinko L, He Y, Kishton R, et al. “The stay at home order is causing things to get heated up”: family conflict dynamics during covid-19 from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline. J Fam Violence 2021;1–10. [published online ahead of print, 2021]. DOI: 10.1007/s10896-021-00290-5
Pfefferbaum B. Challenges for child mental health raised by school closure and home confinement during the covid-19 pandemic. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2021;23(10):65. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-021-01279-z
UNESCO. COVID-19 educational disruption and response. Available from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse. [Accessed October 11, 2021].
Locked out: emergency report on school education. https://ruralindiaonline.org/en/library/resource/locked-out-emergency-report-on-school-education/ Accessed November 11, 2021.
Vyas A. Oxfam Status Report- Government and private schools during COVID-19. September 2020. https://www.oxfamindia.org/knowledgehub/oxfaminaction/status-report-government-and-private-schools-during-covid-19. [Accessed October 20, 2021].
Mayurasakorn K, Pinsawas B, Mongkolsucharitkul P, et al. School closure, COVID-19 and lunch programme: unprecedented undernutrition crisis in low-middle income countries. J Paediatr Child Health 2020;56(7):1013–1017. DOI: 10.1111/jpc.15018
Rajpal S, Joe W, Subramanian SV. Living on the edge? Sensitivity of child undernutrition prevalence to bodyweight shocks in the context of the 2020 national lockdown strategy in India. Glob J Health Sci 2020;2(2):e19. DOI: 10.35500/jghs.2020.2.e19
Cohen Kadosh K, Muhardi L, Parikh P, et al. Nutritional support of neurodevelopment and cognitive function in infants and young children-an update and novel insights. Nutrients 2021;13(1):199. DOI: 10.3390/nu13010199
Christakis DA. School reopening-the pandemic issue that is not getting its due. JAMA Pediatr 2020;174(10):928. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2068
Sharma D, Joshi P. Reopening schools in India during the covid-19 pandemic. J Trop Pediatr 2021;67(2):fmab033. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmab033
Jiao WY, Wang LN, Liu J, et al. Behavioral and emotional disorders in children during the COVID-19 epidemic. J Pediatr 2020;221:264–266. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.013
Holmes EA, O'Connor RC, Perry VH, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(6):547–560. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1
Orgilés M, Francisco R, Delvecchio E, et al. Psychological symptoms in Italian, Spanish and Portuguese youth during the COVID-19 health crisis: a longitudinal study. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021;1–10. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-021-01211-9
Panda PK, Gupta J, Chowdhury SR, et al. Psychological and behavioral impact of lockdown and quarantine measures for COVID-19 pandemic on children, adolescents and caregivers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trop Pediatr 2021;67(1):fmaa122. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmaa122
Christner N, Essler S, Hazzam A, et al. Children's psychological well-being and problem behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online study during the lockdown period in Germany. PLoS One 2021;16(6):e0253473. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253473
Sama BK, Kaur P, Thind PS, et al. Implications of COVID-19-induced nationwide lockdown on children's behaviour in Punjab, India. Child Care Health Dev 2021;47(1):128–135. DOI: 10.1111/cch.12816
Loades ME, Chatburn E, Higson-Sweeney N, et al. Rapid systematic review: the impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of children and adolescents in the context of COVID-19. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020;59(11):1218–1239. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2020.05.009
Meade J. Mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents: a review of the current research. Pediatr Clin North Am 2021;68(5):945–959. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.05.003
Tso WWY, Wong RS, Tung KTS, et al. Vulnerability and resilience in children during the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2020]. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020;1–16. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-020-01680-8
Chambonniere C, Lambert C, Fearnbach N, et al. Effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in French children and adolescents: new results from the ONAPS national survey. Eur J Integr Med 2021;43:101308. DOI: 10.1016/j.eujim.2021.101308
Ten Velde G, Lubrecht J, Arayess L, et al. Physical activity behaviour and screen time in Dutch children during the COVID-19 pandemic: pre-, during- and post-school closures. Pediatr Obes 2021;16(9):e12779. DOI: 10.1111/ijpo.12779
Kracht CL, Katzmarzyk PT, Staiano AE. Household chaos, maternal stress, and maternal health behaviors in the United States during the COVID-19 outbreak. Womens Health (Lond) 2021;17: 17455065211010655. DOI: 10.1177/17455065211010655
Jain O, Gupta M, Satam S, et al. Has the COVID-19 pandemic affected the susceptibility to cyberbullying in India? Comput Hum Behav Reports 2020;2:100029. DOI: 10.1016/j.chbr.2020.100029
Magis-Weinberg L, Ballonoff Suleiman A, Dahl RE. Context, development, and digital media: implications for very young adolescents in LMICs. Front Psychol 2021;12:632713. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.632713
Bates LC, Zieff G, Stanford K, et al. COVID-19 impact on behaviors across the 24-hour day in children and adolescents: physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Children (Basel) 2020;7(9):138. DOI: 10.3390/children7090138
Dondi A, Fetta A, Lenzi J, et al. Sleep disorders reveal distress among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 first wave: results of a large web-based Italian survey. Ital J Pediatr 2021;47(1):130. DOI:10.1186/s13052-021-01083-8
Provenzi L, Baroffio E, Ligabue S, et al. The little professor and the virus: scaffolding children's meaning making during the COVID-19 emergency. Front Psychiatry 2020;11:817. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00817
Lawson M, Piel MH, Simon M. Child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of parental job loss on psychological and physical abuse towards children. Child Abuse Negl 2020;110(Pt 2): 104709. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104709
Rodriguez CM, Lee SJ, Ward KP, et al. The perfect storm: hidden risk of child maltreatment during the covid-19 pandemic. Child Maltreat 2021;26(2):139–151. DOI: 10.1177/1077559520982066
Unni JC. Social effects of COVID-19 pandemic on children in India. Indian J Pract Pediatr 2020;22(2):102–104.
Poddar S, Mukherjee U. Ascending child sexual abuse statistics in India during COVID-19 lockdown: a darker reality and alarming mental health concerns. Indian J Psychol Med 2020;42(5):493–494. DOI: 10.1177/0253717620951391
Stallard P, Pereira AI, Barros L. Post-traumatic growth during the COVID-19 pandemic in carers of children in Portugal and the UK: cross-sectional online survey. BJ Psych Open 2021;7(1):e37. DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2021.1
Cardenas MC, Bustos SS, Chakraborty R. A ‘parallel pandemic’: the psychosocial burden of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr 2020;109(11):2187–2188. DOI: 10.1111/apa.15536
Dvorsky MR, Breaux R, Becker SP. Finding ordinary magic in extraordinary times: child and adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2020]. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020;1–3. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-020-01583-8
Rome ES, Dinardo PB, Issac VE. Promoting resiliency in adolescents during a pandemic: a guide for clinicians and parents. Cleve Clin J Med 2020;87(10):613–618. DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.87a.20055