Aim and objective: To determine the incidence of cleft deformity in Chandigarh by monitoring the total live births occurring at different birth facilities.
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at all birth facilities of UT, Chandigarh during the period between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2010. Total 35 birth facilities, 6 government hospitals, and 29 private nursing homes were included in the study. This epidemiological study was based on monitoring of all the live births and recorded the incidence of type of cleft deformity, associated congenital malformations, birth order, family history, detection, and diagnosis with ultrasonography and folic acid intake during pregnancy.
Results: Forty eight babies with different types of cleft deformities were born with an incidence of 0.97/1,000 live births. Group- 1, group- 1(A), group- 2, and group- 3 (as per Balakrishnan classification) and miscellaneous group included eight (16.66%), 10 (20.84%), 13 (27.08%), 14 (29.16%) newborns, and three (6.26%) newborns (one with subcutaneous cleft and palate while two with midline cleft deformity of face), respectively. The frequency of cleft deformity was significantly more among males except isolated cleft palate group which showed equal distribution. About 15 (46.87%) newborns had cleft deformity on left side, 10 (31.25%) on right side while seven (21.87%) had bilateral cleft deformity. The overall percentage of subjects of cleft with associated major anomalies or syndromes was 22%.
Conclusion: The incidence of cleft deformity in Chandigarh region was found to be 0.97/1,000 live births. The frequency of cleft deformity was more among males as compared to females except isolated cleft palate group which showed equal distribution. The laterality of the cleft deformity was more on left side followed by right side and then bilateral. Improved training to radiologists and gynecologists could increase the detection rates of orofacial clefts during pregnancy.
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