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VOLUME 51 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Are Indian Habits of Cross-legged Sitting and Squatting associated with Anterior Knee Pain?

S Arumugam, Tvisha Ketan Parikh

Citation Information : Arumugam S, Parikh TK. Are Indian Habits of Cross-legged Sitting and Squatting associated with Anterior Knee Pain?. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2017; 51 (1):1-6.

DOI: 10.5005/JPMER-51-1-1

Published Online: 01-12-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



To evaluate the association between anterior knee pain (AKP) and traditional Indian habits of cross-legged sitting and squatting which involve deep knee flexion.

Materials and methods

A case control study was carried out in 225 patients and 225 age and sex matched controls at a tertiary care university hospital in South India over 3 years. Males and females between 18 and 55 years were evaluated using a clinical proforma of history and musculoskeletal examination. The details of deep knee flexion habits with quantification of duration were noted and participants were categorized into those who sat and did not sit cross legged, and squatters and nonsquatters. Odds ratios and chi-square tests were calculated for both these categorical variables. A subgroup analysis and stratified analysis were also performed.


The Odds ratios for cross-legged sitting and squatting were not significant at 0.88 and 0.92 respectively. Sixty-nine point three percentage of the AKP cases and 72% of the controls sat cross legged (p = 0.534) and 67.6% of the AKP cases and 69.3% of controls habitually squatted (p = 0.685). Stratified analysis revealed a protective effect of cross legged sitting in AKP cases with quadriceps muscle tightness.


This study did not find an association between AKP and Indian habits of deep knee flexion. More than 65% of all the participants regularly engaged in these habits. Laboratory biomechanical analysis of these positions is suggested in future to understand their effect on knee joint.

Clinical significance

These positions are integral to daily habits of many Indians. The advice to AKP patients to avoid them due to their probable AKP association is not supported by the current study. Clinicians can consider the impact on the patient's quality of life before advising against these positions.

How to cite this article

Parikh TK, Arumugam S. Are Indian Habits of Cross-legged Sitting and Squatting associated with Anterior Knee Pain? J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2017;51(1):1-6.

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