Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research

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2012 | April-June | Volume 46 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Vivekanand Jha

Mini-Symposium on Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine. Where are We and Where do We need to go?

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jpmer-46-2-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

MEETING REPORT

Varun Dhir

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The New Immunosuppressants?

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:63 - 68]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1015  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Key messages

(1) Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can differentiate only in one lineage (mesodermal). (2) They were first discovered in the bone marrow and this remains a common source, followed by adipose tissue. There are other sources: Synovial fluid, umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta, fetal liver. (3) MSCs are immunosuppressive, the mechanism of which is not fully elucidated, but involves action on other cells mainly through soluble mediators, like TGFβ, IDO, IL-1, NO, etc. (4) MSCs have shown efficacy in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. There have been small human studies, some of which showed benefit, however, a single randomized controlled trial has been done. (5) MSCs may have a role in autoimmune diseases refractory to treatment or as an add onto prevent treatment side effects.

How to cite this article

Dhir V. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The New Immunosuppressants? J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):63-68.

MEETING REPORT

Subhash Varma, Deepesh P Lad, Pankaj Malhotra

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Applications: Past, Present and Future

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:69 - 74]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1016  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Key messages

Hematopoietic stem cells possess the characteristics of self renewal, differentiation, mobilization and apoptosis.

The transfer of hematopoietic stem cells to rescue a recipient's hematopoiesis, who has received conditioning with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation, constitutes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Hematopoietic stem cells can be obtained from the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood.

Autologous HSCT involves the infusion of one's own hematopoietic stem cells. An allogeneic HSCT involves the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells from another individual.

Depending on the HLA match, the HSCT is of following types: Syngeneic, matched related, matched unrelated and haploidentical.

Patient selection and the timing of transplant are the most important factors determining transplant outcomes.

Hematopoietic stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells have applications in regenerative medicine as shown in preclinical and early clinical studies.

How to cite this article

Lad DP, Malhotra P, Varma S. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Applications: Past, Present and Future. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):69-74.

MEETING REPORT

Shamoli Bhattacharyya

Advances and Applications in Stem Cell Biology

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:75 - 80]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1017  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Bhattacharyya S. Advances and Applications in Stem Cell Biology. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):75-80.

MEETING REPORT

Sumrita Bhat, Ashok Kumar

Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:81 - 89]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1018  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Bhat S, Kumar A. Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):81-89.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ajay Sandhu, Vladimir Ioffe, Daniel Karakla, J Trad Wadsworth, April Mendoza, Nikhil Rao, Kathleen Dignan, Elizabeth Mason, Thomas E Goffman

Prospective Single-Arm Study of Radioprotection by Amifostine in High Dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Thyroid Cancer

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:90 - 94]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1019  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Purpose

Xerostomia, sialoadenitis, taste dysfunction and nausea are well known toxicities following high dose radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. This prospective study sought to determine the incidence rates for RAI adverse effects and to determine, whether the radioprotector, amifostine could decrease the duration of the adverse effects in single treatment patients.

Materials and methods

Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer received 150 mCi RAI after total thyroidectomy. All patients were pretreated with 1 mg granisetron and 4 mg dexamethasone. Patients in the amifostine arm (n = 27) were prospectively enrolled and received 500 mg amifostine subcutaneously. Adverse effects were scored based on the CTCAE at 1 month, 6 months, and yearly intervals using a physician administered questionnaire. The results were compared with a retrospective no amifostine cohort (n = 22) for whom data was collected with the identical questionnaire.

Results

The overall incidence of xerostomia, sialadenitis, taste dysfunction and nausea in the treatment group was 26, 22, 52 and 26% respectively. Only grades 1 and 2 adverse effects were observed. The mean duration (days) of xerostomia (control vs treatment)—37.3 vs 21.9 (F test, p = 0.016), taste dysfunction—45.5 vs 23.5 (F test, p = 0.001), sialadenitis— 16.8 vs 7.5 and nausea—18.7 vs 5.1.

Conclusion

In patients treated once with high dose RAI, who develop xerostomia, sialoadenitis, taste dysfunction, and/or nausea, the duration of symptoms appears to be reduced by pretreatment with 500 mg of subcutaneous amifostine without significant treatment related adverse effects.

How to cite this article

Sandhu A, Ioffe V, Karakla D, Wadsworth JT, Mendoza A, Rao N, Dignan K, Mason E, Goffman TE. Prospective Single-Arm Study of Radioprotection by Amifostine in High Dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Thyroid Cancer. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):90-94.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Nishant Gupta, Jagat Ram, Manish Chaudhary, Jaspreet Singh Sukhija, Jaidrath Kumar

Late Opacification of Foldable Intraocular Lenses

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:95 - 97]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1020  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To report opacification of hydrophilic acrylic and silicone foldable intraocular lenses (IOL).

Designs

Case series.

Participants

Five patients with IOL opacification.

Results

We report five eyes of five patients with late opacification of the intraocular lens (IOL). Three patients had hydrophilic acrylic (SC60B-OUV-MDR, Inc), two had silicone IOL (Allergan SI30NB). Two out of the three patients with opacified hydrophilic acrylic IOLs had diabetes mellitus. Three eyes with opacified acrylic IOL underwent IOL exchange with hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Two silicone IOL patients had no visually significant opacification and were managed conservatively.

Conclusion

IOL optic opacification in hydrophilic acrylic and silicone IOL may be due to defective material, manufacturing process, storage.

How to cite this article

Ram J, Gupta N, Chaudhary M, Sukhija JS, Gupta A, Kumar J. Late Opacification of Foldable Intraocular Lenses. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):95-97.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ajay Bansal, Ashok Kumar Utreja, Satinder Pal Singh, Naresh Kumar Panda, Ashok Kumar Jena

The Association between Nasal Septum Deviation and Sagittal Maxillary Growth Discrepancy

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:98 - 101]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1021  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To test the hypothesis that there is no association between the nasal septum deviation and the sagittal growth discrepancy of maxilla.

Materials and methods

Total 80 subjects in the age range of 7 to 51 years were divided into four groups of 20 each. Group I included subjects with normally positioned maxilla, group II included subjects with protruded maxilla, and group III included subjects with retruded maxilla in relation to the anterior cranial base. Subjects who already had a deviated nasal septum were included in group IV. All the subjects were clinically examined for the evaluation of nasal septum deviation. The deviation of nasal septum was categorized into anterior and posterior deviation. The sagittal maxillary growth discrepancy in all subjects was evaluated from lateral cephalograms. The association between the deviation of nasal septum and the discrepancy of maxillary growth in the sagittal plane was tested by Chi-square test.

Results

Deviated nasal septum was more common among subjects with normal and retruded maxilla than subjects with protruded maxilla. Subjects in whom nasal septum was already deviated, various sagittal maxillary growth discrepancies were equally distributed. There was no association between the nasal septum deviation and sagittal growth discrepancy of the maxilla (χ2 = 2.143 and p = 0.342).

Conclusion

There was no association between nasal septum deviation and the sagittal growth discrepancy of the maxilla.

How to cite this article

Bansal A, Utreja AK, Singh SP, Panda NK, Jena AK. The Association between Nasal Septum Deviation and Sagittal Maxillary Growth Discrepancy. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):98-101.

CASE REPORT

Lakhbir Dhaliwal, Neelam Aggarwal, Raje Nijhawan, Subhas Chandra Saha

Aggressive Angiomyxoma Pelvis Presenting as an Ovarian Tumor with Vault Prolapse

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:102 - 103]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1022  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Angiomyxoma is a rare tumor arising from the pelvis. Preoperative diagnosis and treatment may be difficult.

Case report

We report a rare case of aggressive angiomyxoma pelvis that presented as vault prolapse and was misdiagnosed as ovarian tumor.

Conclusion

As surgery is the main treatment, preoperative diagnosis and assessment of extent of the tumor for planning surgery cannot be overemphasized.

Synopsis

Angiomyxoma is a rare pelvic tumor with varied presentation. Preoperative diagnosis and assessment of extent of the tumor are important for its management.

How to cite this article

Siwatch S, Saha SC, Aggarwal N, Dhaliwal L, Nijhawan R. Aggressive Angiomyxoma Pelvis Presenting as an Ovarian Tumor with Vault Prolapse. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):102-103.

CASE REPORT

Mahima Panigrahi, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Prakash B Behere

Understanding and Managing Complete form of Sporadic Koro Syndrome associated with Depression

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:104 - 105]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1023  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Panigrahi M, Padhy SK, Behere PB. Understanding and Managing Complete form of Sporadic Koro Syndrome associated with Depression. J Postgrad Med Edu Res 2012;46(2):104-105.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vinay Sakhuja, Nandita Kakkar

Coexistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium with Disseminated Cryptococcosis in a HIV Positive Patient

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:106 - 111]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1024  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Book Review

Siddhartha Mukherjee

The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer

[Year:2012] [Month:April-June] [Volume:46] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:112 - 112]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1025  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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