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2023 | October-December | Volume 57 | Issue 4

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Mandeep S Dhillon

The Support that Science and Medicine Give to Cricket

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:1] [Pages No:153 - 153]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1649  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Jessica J Orchard, Rajesh Puranik, Philippa J Inge, Leigh Golding, John W Orchard

Cardiac Screening and Prevention of Other Cardiac Emergencies in Cricket

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:154 - 157]

Keywords: Athlete, Defibrillator, Electrocardiogram, Sudden cardiac arrest, Sudden cardiac death

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1633  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cardiac screening has increasingly become a standard part of preventive care for elite athletes in cricket and many other sports around the world. Ideally, a cardiac screening program should be supported by a range of other strategies across the sporting organization focused on quality of care for athletes and prevention of other cardiac emergencies. This narrative review aimed to present key strategies for the successful implementation of cardiac screening and prevention of other cardiac emergencies in the setting of elite cricket. It builds on previous recommendations and adds updated evidence, including cricket-specific evidence. We present key strategies for the prevention of cardiac emergencies in elite cricket. These are cardiac screening, including electrocardiogram (ECG) interpreted by a physician with expertise in athlete ECGs, regular auditing of the cardiac screening program and ongoing quality improvement, building required sports cardiology infrastructure; cardiovascular awareness across the organization, and cardiac emergency preparation, including access to automated external defibrillators (AEDs), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, and prematch medical briefings. Some of these strategies may also be appropriate for nonelite matches but would need to be tailored according to the resources available. The ultimate aim is to provide better cardiac care for cricketers, staff, and the broader community.



Franz Konstantin Fuss, René ED Ferdinands

Dynamics of Neck Injury and Options for Injury Risk Mitigation for Batsmen Playing Fast Short-pitched Bowling

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:158 - 163]

Keywords: Bouncers, Cricket biomechanics, Cricket injuries, Phillip Hughes, Protective equipment, Shock absorber design

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1640  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: In late 2014, batsman Phillip Hughes was hit in the neck by a bouncer and died 2 days later. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the options for cricket ball shock absorption at the neck and whether the current solutions are feasible. Materials and methods: The impact speed and the kinetic energy of the ball were photogrammetrically calculated from the match video. A library of impact absorber materials providing data on the optimal shock absorption point was used to select the best material for shock absorption based on an acceptable thickness and a maximum deceleration of 250 g according to the British Standard (BS). Result: The impact velocity on Hughes’ neck was 30 m/s, and the energy absorbed was 70 J. Using this energy and the mass of a cricket ball, no suitable material was found, either because of the unacceptable thickness (>0.7 m) or the deceleration (>1000 g). Using the data required by the BS (15 J and 5 kg), several solutions were feasible, with a thickness of 14–28 mm and a deceleration of 40–60 g. Conclusion: When testing energy absorbers, it is not only the impact energy that is important but also the speed or mass. Testing an absorber at 70 J and a mass of 0.156 kg gives a different result than at 70 J and a mass of 5 kg. Reducing the impact energy to 15 J only makes it worse. The test conditions of crash cushions shall be based on the worst realistic case. If not, the designed shock absorbers are suboptimal at best.



Steve McCaig, Craig Ranson, Andrew Miles, Isabel Moore

The Reliability of Throwing-related Musculoskeletal Screening Tests Commonly Used in Cricket

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:9] [Pages No:164 - 172]

Keywords: Cricket, Elbow, Injury, Screening, Shoulder, Throwing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1641  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: Throwing arm pain (TAP) is common in cricketers and can negatively affect performance. Understanding the factors contributing to TAP is essential for developing prevention strategies. This study aimed to assess the intrarater reliability of musculoskeletal screening tests frequently used to identify TAP risk factors. Methods: A total of 10 male cricket players from a United Kingdom University Cricket Center of Excellence participated. A single tester, experienced in musculoskeletal screening, performed three consecutive trials of field-based tests to evaluate scapulothoracic posture, shoulder, elbow, and hip range of motion, and shoulder strength. Intrarater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Results: Most musculoskeletal measures demonstrated good to excellent reliability. The mean of three trials showed consistently higher ICCs and lower SEMs than a single trial. Measures of asymmetry had lower ICCs and higher SEMs but generally demonstrated acceptable reliability. Conclusion: The intrarater reliability of musculoskeletal tests for TAP in cricket players was generally acceptable. Using the mean of three trials is recommended to detect differences between individuals or groups and assess changes over time. While most measures demonstrated good reliability, measures of asymmetry require careful interpretation. These findings contribute to the understanding of musculoskeletal screening and aid researchers and clinicians in using these tests effectively for cricketer injury prevention and management. Further studies are needed to evaluate interrater reliability and the association between these screening measures and TAP susceptibility.



Akshai Mansingh, Najeebullah Soomro, Mark Rausa, Riffat Gill, Oba Gulston

Cricket in a Bubble: Experiences with Omicron Variant in the West Indies

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:173 - 176]

Keywords: Biosecure environments, COVID-19, Cricket and medical, Omicron

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1580  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This paper reviews breaches in managed biosecure environments (BSEs) in cricket since the onset of the Omicron variant. Background: Managed BSEs have allowed return to international cricket since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Omicron variant however disrupted three tours since its onset, with rapid spread through teams. The West Indies (WI) tour of Pakistan and Ireland tour of USA in December 2021, and Ireland tour of WI in January 2022 were all affected by an Omicron outbreak. The design of the BSE was examined. The mean time from symptoms to positive test, and the number of negative tests prior to becoming positive were calculated. The symptoms were recorded. Case series: Twenty-four of 28 members of the WI squad ultimately tested positive; nine while in Pakistan and 13 on returning early to the Caribbean. The mean time between having symptoms and returning a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was 2.71 days (range 1–9 days). Each player had 0–4 negative PCR tests (mean 2.34) prior to returning a positive test. Nine of the positive persons were asymptomatic, while those with symptoms resolved within 48 hours. Eleven of 38 Irish squad members tested positive, but positive family members forced others into isolation. Symptoms were all mild and mostly sore throats. Whereas the disease was mild, its virulent nature infected enough of the squads to affect fixtures. On-field exposure did not cause cross-team infection. Conclusion: The Omicron variant is virulent though mild. However, once it enters a squad it spreads quickly but may take time to show positive on PCR or rapid antigen test (RAT). Whereas BSE protocols during this outbreak may need to be tightened as once contracted it leads to disruption of series, an alternative approach may be to treat symptomatic individuals as one does the common flu and isolate them alone. Clinical significance: With increased vaccination rates among cricketers and decreased symptoms with newer COVID-19 variants, and little spread across teams in open spaces, the approach of BSE may need to be changed to treat outbreaks symptomatically.



Asela Ratnayake, Gihan Kuruppu

Identification of Tissue Loading of Cricket Bowlers Using Thermal Imaging Technique as a Predictor of Overloading and Injuries

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:177 - 180]

Keywords: Cricket, Cricket and Medical, Cricket injuries, Sports medicine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1643  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Infrared imaging is an evidence-based, noninvasive method used in the field of medicine to detect the inflammatory level of the tissues. It is also used in sports to evaluate the peripheral blood supply of the various tissues of the human body to compare the performance level. Objective: To identify the loading pattern of tissues of the body during warm-up sessions and bowling of the cricketers using the thermal imaging technique. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study was conducted on 15 cricketers of the elite school-level central province team. Thermal imaging was done in all players at pre and postwarm-up sessions. Serial thermal images were captured on each player for 6 overs. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were conducted to assess the significance of these changes. Results: The thermal images obtained before warming up displayed heterogeneous temperature distribution, compared to the postwarm-up thermal pattern appeared to have uniform and symmetrical thermal distribution. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant difference in temperature distributions before and after warm-up (p < 0.05). In some players, the standard warm-up session may not be sufficient, as indicated by the distinctive thermal patterns observed during the prewarm-up. Four fast bowlers showed trunk region muscles, trapezius, pectoralis, and external oblique significant (p < 0.05) temperature patterns (26.6%). Two spinners showed significant thermal images (p < 0.05), trapezius, and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (13.3%). The only left-arm orthodox bowler had a right elbow and left tibial regional increase thermal pattern (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Thermal imaging to assess the adequacy of the warming-up level in cricketers prior to bowling showed that the standard group-warm up session was not adequate for everyone. They need a tailor-made warming-up session for each one of the bowlers. All fast bowlers showed significant thermal imaging patterns suggestive of overloading of the trapezius, pectoralis, and external oblique muscles. Spinners showed both trunk and lower limb muscles overloading thermal patterns. Further investigation is warranted to identify specific warm-up strategies tailored to individual cricketers’ needs. Tissue loading patterns while bowling should be further studied during training and matches. This will help to identify the areas of excessive tissue loading and hence to develop injury prevention strategies based on the real-time observational data through thermal imaging technique.



Harpal K Bansal, SS Nimishaanth

A Comparative Study on Injury Prevalence and Incidence among Elite Female Cricketers: “The English vs the Indians”

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:181 - 185]

Keywords: Cricket, Female, Injuries, Surveillance, Women

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1637  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Traditionally a male-dominated sport, women's cricket is growing. Most of our present understanding of women's cricket injuries is limited with only a few recent studies compared to their male counterparts who have well-established injury surveillance programs for over 30 years. Objective: To investigate the incidence, nature, anatomical location, and mechanism of injury in elite English female cricket players and Indian state female cricket players over two seasons from October 2020 to October 2022. Materials and methods: Injury data were collected retrospectively through a cohort study design via the English Cricket Board's “Cricket Squad,” and self-assessment injury forms which were sent to the Indian female cricket players. Profiles of the anatomical location, nature, and mechanism of injuries were categorized according to dominant player position. Injury incidence rates were calculated based on match playing hours. Results: There were 95 medical-attention injuries with 85.7% of players reporting more than one injury for the English female players. There were only 16 injuries recorded with the female state players of India. Match injury incidence was 169.4 injuries/10,000 hours for all injuries for English female cricket players. Muscle injuries were the most recorded with 44.2% for English players and 66.7% for Indian players. For the English female cricket players, wrist/hand 18.9% and thigh 13.7% injuries were the most common time-loss injuries whereas Indian state players had shoulder (25%) and knee (33.33%) injuries. When players were grouped into their dominant skill, English player's bowlers sustained 44.2% of all medical-attention injuries whereas, for the Indian players, it was their batters (41.7%). The majority of injuries sustained had an insidious onset for both English and Indian female cricket players, 18.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Ongoing injury surveillance can inform data-driven initiatives for effective health care for athletes and establish prevention measures. There is a need to focus on specific injuries in female cricket including wrist/hand, thigh, and shoulder injuries because of their higher prevalence rates.



Rajesh K Rajnish, Siddhartha Sharma

Foot and Ankle Injuries in Cricket Players: The Current State of Our Knowledge

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:5] [Pages No:186 - 190]

Keywords: Ankle, Cricket, Foot, Impingement, Injury, Sports injury

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1647  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cricket is the most popular sport in India and the commonwealth countries and is played in around 60 countries around the world. Although considered a noncontact sport, the press is replete with high-profile players missing match time due to acute or chronic injuries. We attempted a narrative review of site-specific injury epidemiology and incidence and found that the available literature is very sparse when looking at foot and ankle injuries in cricket. Most publications are generalized in nature and come from the developed world; very few are from the four countries of the Indian subcontinent, where cricket is passionately played at all ages. Most of the work also focuses on elite players, with limited data available from lower-level player groups. Site-specific description of injury is limited and inadequately documented. The commonest documented injury in the foot and ankle is lateral ligament injury, which may itself lead to posterior impingement in fast bowlers. No data is available that can correlate injury patterns or incidence with player types, which creates a hindrance to planning injury prevention protocols; future research needs to focus on correlating player types, like bowlers. The epidemiology and injury incidence in the dominant foot/ankle, the chronicity, and the rehabilitation required are all areas that need to be studied. It may also be important to identify the biomechanics involved and player types who have a high-risk for potential foot and ankle injuries.



Shalini Meganathan, Nimishaanth Samson Arumugam Subatra Devi, Thiagarajan Alwar, Armugam Sivaraman

A Pilot Study on the Correlation between Hip–Shoulder Separation Angle and Lateral Trunk Flexion in Indian Collegiate Fast Bowlers

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:4] [Pages No:191 - 194]

Keywords: Ball speed, Fast bowling, Hip–shoulder separation angle, Lateral trunk flexion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1648  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Cricket fast bowling is one of the most widely studied fragments of cricket. The kinetics and kinematics of the fast-bowling action are evidently responsible for the performance and injury risks of the bowler. This study focuses on two crucial factors of the latter—lateral trunk flexion (LTF) and hip–shoulder separation (HSS) angle. Aim and objective: This study aims to establish the relationship between the HSS angle and LTF, the correlation between the LTF angle and ball release, and the correlation between the HSS angle and ball release in cricket fast bowlers. Materials and methods: A total of 10 collegiate fast bowlers participated in this study. The best delivery of the six bowled balls was chosen. In Vicon Nexus, the HSS angle and LTF angles were calculated for correlations. The parameters were then run on Pearson's correlation test with significance at p ≤ 0.05. Result: A total of 10 bowlers successfully completed the study. Their average ball speeds were 107.5 ± 9.99 km/hour. The study showed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.788, p = 0.007) between HSS angle and LTF. There was no significant correlation between LTF and HSS angles with ball speed. Conclusion: By establishing a strong relationship between LTF and HSS angle, this study provides a better understanding to the coaches to assign new injury risk assessment strategies. LTF angles, like HSS angles, can also be used to assess the risk of injury.



Ross G Cooper, Keith Kulinga, Gary Brent

Evolution of Cricket in Zimbabwe and a Look at the Bowling Styles in a Men's Cricket Team

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:7] [Pages No:195 - 201]

Keywords: Bowling style, Cricket, Fast, History, Men's team, Rhodesia, Spin, Sport, Zimbabwe

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1639  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The current investigation sought to determine the motivation of a selected delivery style of bowling at the crease, including last minute decisions thereof, in three overs per bowler among selected players in a Zimbabwean men's cricket team. Introduction: Historically, the inception of the game of cricket in Southern Rhodesia, its remarkable continuance nationally up until the present day, and its cultivation at local schools, resulted in some notable historical experiences amongst exceptional players, including former P.M. Ian D. Smith. The historical development and global recognition of Zimbabwe as a significant cricket nation was discussed. Materials and methods: During the investigation of bowling styles, a selected cohort of 10 cricket players aged 18–35 years (competing in the Men's Logan Cup 2023, Harare, Zimbabwe) were chosen and observations by way of counts were made on spin (13 categories: leg spin, off spin, off break, top spin, arm ball, the doosra, carrom ball, the teesa, leg break, top spin, googly, flipper and slider) and fast (12 categories: fast pace, medium pace, swinger, out swing, reverse swing, bouncer, slower ball, Yorker, off cutter, leg cutter, knuckle ball and beamer) bowling styles. Results: Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient revealed that there were no statistically different determinants between spin and fast bowling styles. Within the respective categories, mean±SD off break (9.2±7.7) and leg break (5.1 ± 6.3) (spin), and out swing (7.1 ± 7.3) and swinger (5.4 ± 5.8) (fast), were significantly (p <0.05) higher than the other styles within each grouping. Categories which had no recordings included the doosra, carrom ball, the teesa, flipper and slider (spin); and off cutter, leg cutter and beamer (fast). The percentage category selection of spin and fast bowling styles, included 61.5 and 75%, respectively. Conclusion: More local academic (scientific and medical) studies researching provincial and national cricket team performance/s are enthusiastically encouraged.



Proceedings of the World Congress of Science and Medicine in Cricket, November 3–5, 2023, India (Selected Abstracts)

[Year:2023] [Month:October-December] [Volume:57] [Number:4] [Pages:10] [Pages No:202 - 211]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1645  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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