Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Education and Research

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2024 | January-March | Volume 58 | Issue 1

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Sahil Mehta

Recent Advancements in Parkinson's Disease

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:1 - 2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1652  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Sai A Raman, Suresh Perumal, M Vikram Rao, Thiagarajan K Alwar, Sivaraman Arumugam

Isokinetic Knee Strength Profile of Indian State-level Cricket Fast Bowlers

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:3 - 6]

Keywords: Cricket, Cricket injuries, Fast bowling, Isokinetic strength

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1642  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and aim: Cricket is the most commonly played and followed sport in India and demands a high level of performance from the fast bowler. Large ground reaction forces generated at front foot contact put fast bowlers at high risk of lower limb and lumbar spine injury. Precise dynamic coordination of lower body segments is needed to absorb these forces and transfer the energy via the core to the upper limb to propel the ball at faster speeds. Thus, knowledge of lower quadrant strength, especially dynamic knee strength, can be useful for injury prevention and better performance in fast bowlers. There is a lack of literature on this subject in Indian fast bowlers despite the popularity of the sport. This study aims to evaluate isokinetic knee strength and determine the relevant asymmetries and strength imbalances in relation to injury risk in cricket fast bowlers. Methods: A total of 42 male Indian state-level fast bowlers underwent isokinetic knee strength testing. Peak torques (PT) normalized to body weight (BW) were obtained for quadriceps concentric (Qconc), quadriceps eccentric (Qecc), hamstring concentric (Hconc), and hamstring eccentric (Hecc). Bilateral strength asymmetries (BSA) and dynamic control ratio (DCR) (hamstring DCR (H-DCR) = Hecc/Qconc and quadriceps DCR (Q-DCR) = Qecc/Hconc) were evaluated. Descriptive statistical analysis of data was done. Results: Around 67% of bowlers had significant Qecc strength asymmetry. In addition, 40% had poor hamstrings DCR and 19% had poor Q-DCR on the front limb. Conclusion: A significant proportion of fast bowlers have unfavorable strength asymmetry and DCR and could be at risk of injury. Improving dynamic knee strength through plyometric training could help optimize performance and reduce injury risk. Clinical significance: This study highlights key areas of possible injury risk that can be targeted with strength and conditioning to prevent lower limb and lumbar spine injuries in fast bowlers.



Ross G Cooper

School Cricket—“The Middle Leg”: Milton Boys’ High School, Bulawayo

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:7 - 12]

Keywords: Britain, History, Milton, Rhodesia, School cricket

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1629  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The current article explores cricket in one of the oldest schools in Zimbabwe and its introduction as a popular sport by the colonial administration of Britain. Zimbabwe's most successful sport, cricket, survived isolation from international competition during United Nations imposed sanctions (1965–1980) and blossomed in stature thereafter. The sport was introduced in the 1890s, and the first match on home soil occurred in August 1890 near Masvingo.



Sukhpal Kaur, Radha K Dhiman, Sandeep Satsangi, Pankaj Arora

Awareness Regarding Prevention of Hepatitis B and its Management among Nurses

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:13 - 18]

Keywords: Hepatitis B, Knowledge and Attitude, Nurses, Vaccination

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1651  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a substantial infectious hazard among nurses. The present study aimed to assess nurses’ awareness regarding the prevention and care of HBV-positive patients. Materials and methods: A total of 400 nurses were randomly enrolled in the study. The data was collected using a prevalidated questionnaire. Approval for the study was sought from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: Mean age of the nurses was 30.6 ± 9.56 years. Female nurses outnumbered the males. The overall mean knowledge score was 25.7 ± 1.64 (56%). About 80% of nurses strongly agreed that they are at risk of getting HBV infection. Around 56% of nurses suggested that the patients positive for HBV should be isolated from other patients, whereas 70.2% of nurses felt that double gloves should be worn while providing care to these patients. A total of 78% of nurses opined that the patients should be tested for HBV at the time of admission to the hospital. All three doses of the HBV vaccine were taken by 57% of nurses. Only 22% had their immunoglobulin levels checked after getting vaccinated. Needlestick injuries (NSIs) were experienced by 44% of the nurses, and 56.5% knew about what should be done after getting NSI. Conclusion: There is a need to organize in-service education programs for nurses on a regular basis to keep them abreast of HBV infection.



Piyush Pathak, Sandeep Kaur, Sandeep Grover, Sant Ram

Lipid Profile and Total Antioxidant Status in Major Depressive Disorder Patients in North Indian Tertiary Care Hospital: A Case Control Study

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:19 - 23]

Keywords: Antioxidants, Cholesterol, Lipid profile, Major depressive disorder, Triglycerides

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1655  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common mental health disorder. It is a multifactorial disease and the pathophysiology is not clear, which results in fewer available options for treatment and more treatment-resistant cases. The development of early diagnostic and prognostic markers will help in the reduction of the burden of this disease. Oxidative stress plays an important role in depression and it is evident that antioxidant effects are exerted by many treatment modalities available for depression. Lipids have a role in inter- and intraneuronal functions of the brain, they can also be developed as markers for MDD. Materials and methods: In this study, we compared serum antioxidant status and serum lipid profile in MDD patients and healthy controls. A total of 30 MDD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum antioxidant level and serum lipid profile were done using a kit-based method on an autoanalyzer. Results: The level of antioxidants [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] in controls was 1.332 ± 0.215 mmol/L and in MDD patients was 1.399 ± 0.298 mmol/L, the difference was not significant. The level of total cholesterol in controls was 169.203 ± 31.114 mg/dL and in MDD patients was 193.080 ± 38.876 mg/dL, the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011). The difference in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) levels was insignificant between healthy controls and MDD patients. Conclusion: Mixed findings from our study and the various literature suggest that there is a complex association between MDD, antioxidants, and lipid profile, and extensive study is needed in the field. Clinical significance: The study will be helpful in finding biomarkers for MDD.



Bhavneet Kaur, Hari K Boorugu, Usha Ravishankar, Sailaja Devi

Pregnancy Unmasking Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Case Report

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:24 - 26]

Keywords: Case report, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, Pregnancy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1646  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by angiodysplasia which may manifest with telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the central nervous system, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Women suffering from HHT may have a normal pregnancy course but some pregnancies are at risk of fulminant complications related to hormonal and cardiovascular changes of pregnancy. Hence, it becomes very important to diagnose this condition promptly and monitor women with HHT carefully to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We present two women diagnosed with HHT in pregnancy who presented to our institution with different clinical scenarios. Based on the clinical findings, family history and high index of suspicion, we were able to diagnose and manage them accordingly.



Gunjan Pruthi

Esthetic Rehabilitation of a Post-trauma Patient Using Anterior Block Graft and Screw-retained Prosthesis over Ceramic-reinforced Polyetheretherketone Abutment: A Case Report

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:27 - 32]

Keywords: Anterior tooth trauma, Case Report, Dental implant, Esthetics, Polyetheretherketone, Implant abutment, Visual analog scale

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1650  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: This case report describes the comprehensive and conservative rehabilitation of a post-trauma patient with advanced techniques and materials along with laboratory steps of fabrication of a provisional crown. Case description: A 19-year-old female reported a history of avulsion of her right central incisor during childhood and wanted a cosmetic replacement with a fixed tooth. A block graft was harvested to augment the deficient bone, followed by the placement of a narrow-diameter implant. Severe deep bite, implant with slight palatal with emergence, unfavorable gingival contour, and high esthetic demand were noticed on prosthodontic referral. Innovative modification in interim denture restored esthetics during the healing phase. Immediate provisional crown after modification of the gingival zenith with laser technology helped in the prosthetic and psychological rehabilitation of the patient. A customized hybrid abutment fabricated in ceramic reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) [high-performance polymer (BioHPP)] and veneering with highly translucent composite provided life-like esthetics to the final restoration, which is maintained up to the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion: A good prosthetic outcome satisfied the esthetic demand of the patient and helped in restoring her self-esteem. Clinical significance: Customized titanium or zirconia abutments have been used to manage labially angulated implants, but rehabilitation of an implant with a palatal emergence implant has been less documented. Satisfactory results suggest that ceramic-reinforced PEEK can be considered to restore the esthetics of patients requiring implant-supported crowns in similar complex clinical situations.



Anjali Sharma, Sukhpal Kaur

Sociodemographic Profile and Outcome of the Acute Poisoning Adult Patients Admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:33 - 37]

Keywords: Acute poisoning, Outcomes, Sociodemographic profile

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1598  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Poisoning is one of the most common medicolegal problems in India. It is the second most important cause of suicide, followed by hanging in India. Aims and objectives: The current study is designed to determine the sociodemographic profile of the poisoning patients and their outcomes at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Materials and methods: All the acute poisoning patients considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, were admitted to the medicine emergency of a tertiary care hospital during the period of June–November 2019 and were enrolled after prior permission from the Institute Ethics Committee. A structured pro forma was filled regarding the patient's demographic information, incidence of poisoning, cause and type of poisoning, clinical presentation of patients, duration of respiratory support, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, hospital stay, and final outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Maximum cases were observed in the age group of 21–30 (33.87%). The incidence of poison consumption was marginally higher in females (51.6%). Unemployed (22.6%), housewives (19.4%), and students (17.7%) were the distribution as per occupation. The majority (90.3%) of the patients in all the groups ingested poison with the intent to suicide. Overall, there was 61% pesticide poisoning. The highest mortality (38%) was seen amongst the patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Conclusion: Pesticides were the major cause of poisoning in the Northern region. Based on these findings’ preventive measures like rationed supply and restricted sale of poisonous agents, improvement of legislature, and provision of license to the sale persons is the need for the hour.



Kamal Kishore, Vidushi Jaswal, Tejinder Singh

Statistics Corner: Analysis of Variance

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:38 - 42]

Keywords: ANOVA, SATS-36, Graphical User Interface (GUI)

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1653  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The t-test and its nonparametric counterpart are ideal for comparing the effect of two interventions. However, they fall short when it comes to comparing three or more groups. The rote application of multiple t-tests to compare three or more groups leads to the wastage of time and an increase in the false-positive (FP) rate. Therefore, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is more appropriate for comparing more than two groups. The first question that comes to mind while applying ANOVA is that the researcher's interest is to compare mean, whereas ANOVA compares variance. Further, many pertinent questions that come to mind are: Why choose ANOVA over multiple t-tests? Are there different types of ANOVA? What is the role of post hoc tests in ANOVA? What are the null and alternative hypotheses in ANOVA?



Nishtha Ahuja, Suvradeep Mitra, Uma Nahar Saikia, Arun Bansal, Sadhna Lal, Sanjay Jain, Savita Attri

Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: A Disappearing Evil

[Year:2024] [Month:January-March] [Volume:58] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:43 - 52]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1656  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


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